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ammonoid: Extinct relatives of cephalopods (squid, octopi, and chambered nautiluses), these mollusks had coiled shells and are found in the fossil record of the Cretaceous period.

Amphibian larvae are aquatic, and have gills for respiration; they undergo metamorphosis to the adult form.

Most amphibians are found in damp environments and they occur on all continents except Antarctica.

analogous structures: Structures in different species that look alike or perform similar functions (e.g., the wings of butterflies and the wings of birds) that have evolved convergently but do not develop from similar groups of embryological tissues, and that have not evolved from similar structures known to be shared by common ancestors. Note: The recent discovery of deep genetic homologies has brought new interest, new information, and discussion to the classical concepts of analogous and homologous structures.

anatomy: (1) The structure of an organism or one of its parts. ancestral homology: Homology that evolved before the common ancestor of a set of species, and which is present in other species outside that set of species. anthropoid: A member of the group of primates made up of monkeys, apes, and humans.

amino acid sequence: A series of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, usually coded for by DNA.

Exceptions are those coded for by the RNA of certain viruses, such as HIV.

The term can also be applied to larger groups of organisms, as in "the adaptive radiation of mammals." adaptive strategies: A mode of coping with competition or environmental conditions on an evolutionary time scale.

Species adapt when succeeding generations emphasize beneficial characteristics.

artifact: An object made by humans that has been preserved and can be studied to learn about a particular time period.

artificial selection: The process by which humans breed animals and cultivate crops to ensure that future generations have specific desirable characteristics.

Allometric relations can be studied during the growth of a single organism, between different organisms within a species, or between organisms in different species. amino acid: The unit molecular building block of proteins, which are chains of amino acids in a certain sequence.