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However, linguistic evidence indicates that the languages spoken in the ancient Kerma Culture (present-day southern Egypt and northern Sudan) in Nubia, belonged to the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.

Until at least 1970, the Birgid language was spoken north of Nyala in Darfur, but is now extinct.

Nubia is believed to have served as a trade corridor between Egypt and tropical Africa long before 3100 BC.

Egyptian craftsmen of the period used ivory and ebony wood from tropical Africa which came through Nubia.

There were a number of large Nubian kingdoms throughout the Postclassical Era, the last of which collapsed in 1504, when Nubia became divided between Egypt and the Sennar sultanate, resulting in the Arabization of much of the Nubian population.

Nubia was again united within Ottoman Egypt in the 19th century, and within the Kingdom of Egypt from 1899 to 1956.

Toby Wilkinson, based on work by Bruce Williams in the 1980s, wrote that "The white crown, associated in historic times with Upper Egypt, is first attested later than the red crown, but is directly associated with the ruler somewhat earlier.

The earliest known depiction of the white crown is on a ceremonial incense burner from Cemetery at Qustul in Lower Nubia".

Nubia is a region along the Nile rivers encompassing the areas between what is today central Sudan and southern Egypt.